Govt of India

Kanpur - Overview


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About Kanpur

Kanpur is the 12th most populous city in India. It is the administrative headquarters of Kanpur Nagar district and Kanpur division. It is the second largest industrial town in north India, following Delhi.

The name is believed to have derived from Karnapur (meaning "town of Karna", one of the heroes of the Mahabharata). Another theory is that it came from the nearby town of Makanpur, earlier known as Khairabad, where the Sufi saint of the Madariya Sufi order, Badiuddin Zinda Shah Madar, settled.


Short Description of Kanpur

Kanpur is the biggest city of the state and is the main centre of commercial and industrial activities. Formerly it was known as Manchester of India. Now it is the commercial capital of Uttar Pradesh.

It is situated on the most important national highways no. 2 & 25 and state highway, the main Delhi-Howrah railway trunck lines & at the bank of holy river Ganga. It is about 126 meters above the sea level. Presently civilian air-service to Delhi is available for the city at Ahirwan. The other nearest civilian airport Amausi (Lucknow) is 65Km. away from Kanpur.

Kanpur is also divisional headquarter of Kanpur commissionery consisting of following districts:

·         Kanpur-Nagar

·         Kanpur-Dehat

·         Etawah

·         Aurayia

·         Farrukhabad

·         Kannauj


History of Kanpur

Upto the 1st half of the 18th century Kanpur continued to survive as an insignificant village. Its fate, however, took a new turn soon after. In May 1765, Shuja-ud-daula, the Nawab Wazir of Awadh, was defeated by the British near Jajmau. It was probably at this time that strategic importance of the site of Kanpur was realized by the British. European businessmen had by this time gradually started establishing themselves in Kanpur. In order to ensure protection to their lives and property the `Awadh local forces' were shifted here in 1778. Kanpur passed into British hands under the treaty of 1801 with Nawab Saadat Ali Khan of Awadh. This forms a turning point in the history of Kanpur. Soon Kanpur became one of the most important military station of British India. It was declared a district on 24th March 1803.

Kanpur in 1857: It was Cawnpore that came to symbolize the horror of the mutiny for the British and without doubt what transpired there in the summer of 1857 was a major factor in the thirst for vengeance which seemed to drive the British troops as they fought to reverse the mutineer’s initial successes. Till the end of the mutiny, British troops going forward with the bayonet shouted "Cawnpore! Cawnpore!" as their warcry and punishments meted out to captured mutineers were executed with Cawnpore in mind.

After 1857, the development of Kanpur was even more phenomenal. Government Harness and Saddlery Factory was started for supplying leather material for army in 1860, followed by Cooper Allen & Co. in 1880. The first cotton textile mill, the Elgin Mills were started in 1862 and Muir Mills in 1882.

Today besides being the most industrialized region of the state, Kanpur is also an important educational centre, with institutions like Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Agricultural College, Indian Institute of Technology, GSVM Medical College, National Sugar Institute and Government Textile Institute being located here.

Apart from playing a stellar role in the development of the country as a whole, Kanpur has also been instrumental in making an unforgettable contribution to the Indian freedom struggle. A favorite centre of activities of stalwarts like Nanarao Peshwa, Tantiya Tope, Sardar Bhagat Singh and Chander Shekhar Azad among others, Kanpur is also the birth place of Shyamlal Gupta `Parshad, composer of the famous patriotic ditty `Vijayee Vishwa Tiranga Pyara. The propagation and popularization of Hindi also owes much to this city, with great Hindu literatures like Acharya Mahavir Parasad Dwivedi, Ganesh Shanker Vidyarthi, Pratap Narain Mishra, Acharya Gaya Prasad Shukla `Sanehi and Balkrishna Sharma `Navin having hailed from here.


Location and Population

Nestled on the banks of the eternal Ganga, Kanpur stands as one of North India's major industrial centers with its own historical, religious and commercial importance. Believed to be founded by king Hindu Singh of the erstwhile state of Sachendi, Kanpur was originally known as `Kanhpur'. Historically, Jajmau on the eastern outskirts of present day Kanpur is regarded as one of the most archaic townships of Kanpur district.

The biggest city of UttarPradesh and eighth biggest in India. Kanpur is the most important metropolis of the state. According to the 2001 census, the city had a population of 25,51,337. Among the big towns of Uttar Pradesh, the growth of kanpur has been phenomenal. It ranked third after Lucknow and Varanasi in 1901, but by 1961 it assumed a position on top of the list. It has registered an increase of over five times from 1,97,170 in 1901 to 9,71,062 in 1961 in the course of six decades. This is mainly due to its most central location in the state. Kanpur has benefited from its fertile agricultural hinterland of the Upper Ganga Valley and Bundelkhand plateau, the available developed links of transportation and the stimulant of World War-2 with its industrial demand. In this city, in spite of a low percentage of irrigated area, the density is high and that is obviously due to great industrial Concentration.


Why Kanpur Formely known as Manchester of India?

The city which once was termed as Manchester of India for its matured cotton industry. The city which hosted (and still hosts) the world famous 'Lal Imli' woolen factory, industries such as LML, Pan Parag, ICI Limited (now known as Duncuns Fertilisers), one of the largest leather industries in the world and myriad cotton mills.

city which boosts one of the largest number of defense establishments; To name a few Hindustan Aeronautical Limited (HAL), DMSRDE, Small Arms Factory(SAF), Field Gun Factory and Parachute factory.


Connectivity and Transportation

Airways: Kanpur Airport has scheduled commercial flights to Delhi. The nearest International Airport is the Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport at Lucknow, which is around 77.1 km from Kanpur.

Road: Kanpur is connected by road with all the major cities of the country. It is situated on National Highway No. 2 on the Delhi-Agra-Allahabad-Calcutta route and on National Highway No. 25 on the Lucknow-Jhansi-Shivpuri route.

Distances from some destinations in the region:

·         Lucknow - 79 km.

·         Allahabad - 193 km.

·         Varanasi - 329 km.

·         Agra - 269 km.

·         Jhansi - 222 kms.

Ring Road: The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is all set to develop a four-lane outer ring road along the periphery of Kanpur with an aim to prevent traffic congestion in the industrial city caused by long-distance heavy vehicles. The new road, which will help the heavy vehicles to bypass the city, will be developed on a "Built, Operate and Transfer" (BOT) basis under the phase-VII of National Highways Development Programme (NHDP)

Railways: Kanpur Central is the major rail head. Beside, Kanpur Anwarganj, Panki, Govindpuri, Rawatpur and Kalyanpur are major railway halt stations. Kanpur Metro is planned MRTS for the city.


Education and Kanpur Municipal Corporation

Today besides being the most industrialized region of the state, Kanpur is also an important educational centre, with institutions like Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Agricultural College, Indian Institute of Technology, GSVM Medical College, National Sugar Institute and Government Textile Institute being located here.

Kanpur Municipal Corporation is preparing the Smart City Proposal with an intent to plan and provide smart solutions to the city and welcomes the citizens of Kanpur to post their views, opinions, thoughts and plans on smart solutions for their needs related to water supply, sanitation, solid waste management, storm water drainage, waste water management, affordable housing, energy efficiency, use of renewable and solar energy, non-motorized transport, underground electric cabling, open space development, safety, healthcare, education, culture and heritage, public transport, key infrastructure such as pedestrian walkways, cycle tracks, roads, underpasses, Fly overs, services such as e-governance tools etc.

Inputs from citizens is crucial for framing a vision for Kanpur and to get selected as one among the top 20 cities in the first year, in the Smart City Challenge round.


Map of Kanpur

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Discussion on Kanpur

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Government Housing Scheme



  • Prime Minister Awas Yojana
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  • Samajwadi Awas Yojana
  • Deen Dayal Jan Awas Yojana
  • Mukhya Mantri Awas Yojna Rajasthan
  • Affordable Housing Policy 2013
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