Aligarh is a city in the Northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of the Aligarh district. It lies 126 miles (203 km) northwest of Kanpur and is approximately 90 miles (140 km) southeast of the capital, New Delhi. Notable as the seat of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh is one of the largest cities in Uttar Pradesh as well as the 55th largest city in India.
Before the 18th century, Aligarh was known as Kol. The history of the district up until the 12th century is obscure.
According to an 1875 gazetteer written by Edwin T. Atkinson, the name Kol was given to the city by Balarama, who slew the great Asura (demon) Kol there and, with the assistance of the Ahirs, subdued this part of the doab. In another account, Atkinson points out a "legend" that Kol was founded by the Dor tribe of Rajputs in 372. This is further confirmed by an old fort, the ruined Dor fortress, which lies at the city centre.
Sometime before the Muslim invasion, Kol was held by the Dor Rajputs. At the time of Mahmud of Ghazni, the chief of the Dors was Hardatta of Baran. Statues of Buddha and other Buddhist remains have been found in excavations where the citadel of Koil stood, indicating a Buddhist influence. Hindu remains indicate that the citadel probably had a Hindu temple after the Buddhist temple.
In 1194, Qutb-ud-din Aibak marched from Delhi to Kol, "one of the most celebrated fortresses of Hind". Qutb-ud-din Aibak appointed Hisam-ud-din Ulbak as the first Muslim governor of Koil.
Koil is mentioned in Ibn Battuta's Rihla, when Ibn Battuta along with 15 ambassadors representing Ukhaantu Khan, emperor of the Mongol Chinese Yuan dynasty, travelled to Kol city en route to the coast at Cambay (in Gujarat) in 1341. According to Battuta, it would appear that the district was then in a very disturbed state since the escort of the Emperor's embassy had to assist in relieving Jalali from an attacking body of Hindus and lost an officer in the fight. Ibn Batuta calls Kol "a fine town surrounded by mango groves". From these same groves the environs of Kol would appear to have acquired the name Sabzabad or "the green country".
In the reign of Akbar, Kol was made a Sirkar and included the dasturs of Marahra, Kol ba Haveli, Thana Farida and Akbarabad. Akbar and Jahangir visited Kol on hunting expeditions. Jahangir clearly mentions the forest of Kol, where he killed wolves.
During the time of Ibrahim Lodhi, Muhammad, son of 'Umar, was the governor of Kol. He built a fort at Kol and named the city Muhammadgarh, after himself, in 1524–25. Sabit Khan, who was then the governor of this region, of Farrukh Siyar and Muhammad Shah, rebuilt the old Lodhi fort and named the town after himself: Sabitgarh.
The Jat ruler, Surajmal, with help from Jai Singh of Jaipur and the Muslim army, occupied the fort of Koil. Koil was renamed Ramgarh and finally, when a Shia commander, Najaf Khan, captured it, he gave it its present name of Aligarh. Aligarh Fort (also called Aligarh Qila), as it stands today, was built by French engineers under the command of French officers Benoît de Boigne and Perron.
Battle of Aligarh (1803)
The Battle of Aligarh was fought on 1 September 1803 during the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805) at Aligarh Fort. The British 76th Regiment, now known as the Duke of Wellington's Regiment besieged the fort, which was under the control of the French officer Perron, and established British rule. In 1804, the Aligarh district was formed by the union of the second, third and fourth British divisions with the addition of Anupshahr from Muradabad and Sikandra Rao from Etawa. On 1 August 1804, Claude Russell was appointed the first Collector of the new district. Shri Budhsen upadhyay was a famous and prominent freedom fighter iglas block.
Aligarh is located at the coordinates 27.88°N 78.08°E. It has an elevation of approximately 178 metres (587 feet). The city is in the middle portion of the doab, the land between the Ganges and the Yamuna rivers. The G.T. Road passes through. It is 134 km from capital of India via NH-91.
Economy growth of Aligarh
The city is an agricultural trade centre. Agricultural product processing and manufacturing are important.
Aligarh is an important business centre of Uttar Pradesh and is most famous for its lock industry. Aligarh locks are exported across the world. In 1870, Johnson & Co. was the first English lock firm in Aligarh. In 1890, the company initiated production of locks on a small scale here.
Aligarh is famous for brass hardware and sculpture. Today, the city holds thousands of manufacturers, exporters and suppliers involved in the brass, bronze, iron and aluminium industries.
Aligarh is a big centre of zinc die casting. There are thousands of pneumatic hot chamber die casting machines. But many exporters have adopted latest technology and have installed fully automatic, computerised hot chamber machines. Indian Diecasting Industries at Sasni Gate Area is the most renowned [peacock term] manufacturer in this line and they are capable of meeting international quality norms.
Harduaganj Thermal Power Station (also referred as Kasimpur Power House) is 15 km from the city. Narora Atomic Power Station is located 50 km from Aligarh. Despite its proximity to two large power stations, frequent power cuts are normal in Aligarh.
Aligarh hosts Heinz-sauce manufacturing unit in Manzurgarhi, Satha sugar factory on the Aligarh-Kasimpur Power House route and a cement factory of UltraTech Cement company. Indian Oil Boteling Plant exits at Andla in Khair. Wave Distallery (Kingfisher bear) located at Atrauli in Aligarh.
Hicks thermometer has manufacturing in Industrial Estate, Aligarh
SAC Entertainment an event and artist management company that is famous for managing college and school festivals has its registered office in Aligarh
Infrastructure/Development in Aligarh
Aligarh is the 55th fastest-growing city in India. Following major development projects are under construction in City.
· Govt. Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Chherat
· Super Speciality Trauma Center at AMU
· Sports University at Khair Road
· ISKCON Temple at Harduaganj
· World class Shooting Range at Chherat
· Astro Turf Hockey Stadium in AMU
· NH-93 Kathpula-Jamalpur Crossing 4 Lane work (Completed Except flyover at Jamalpur Crossing)
· Aligarh-Khair-Palwal 4 Lane highway work is proposed (10 km. bypass at Khair City and 5 km bypass at Jattari)
· Aligarh-Moradabad 4 Lane highway work is proposed
· World Class Golf Corse at AMU Aligarh
· 5 Star Country Inn Hotel near Aligarh Junction (Will be ready in 2017)
· A bypass railway line for Goods train
Education/Colleges in Aligarh
There are numerous School and colleges in Aligarh for education. Aligarh Muslim University is a leading central university it provides education in various field such as medical and engineering Some of the Engineering colleges in Aligarh are:
· Dharam Samaj Bal Mandir,Parao Dubey, Aligarh
· Maharishi vidya mandir, Agra road Aligarh.
· Blue Bird Senior Secondary School, Aligarh.
· Institute of Information Management & Technology(IIMT) Aligarh
· ACN college of engineering and management studies
· Aligarh College of Engineering & Technology
· Shivdan Singh Institute of Engineering and Management
· Vivekanand College of Technology and Management
· Institute of Technology and Management, Aligarh
· Gagan College of Management & Technology
· Shri Sher Singh Nayak inter college, Raipur khas,
· Shri Budhsen Public School, Iglas,Aligarh
· Zakir Hussain College of Engineering and Technology, AMU, Aligarh
Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) is one of the oldest central university. It was established by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan as Madrasatul Uloom Musalmanan-e-Hind, in 1875–78 which later became Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College (MAO College). It was designed to train Muslims for government services in India and prepare them for advanced training in British universities. The Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College became Aligarh Muslim University in 1920. It is famous for its Law, Medical and Engineering College.
Places of Interest
· Shekha Jheel, Bird Sanctuary
· Maulana Azad Library (AMU campus) (Estd 1875)
· Clock Tower known in Hindi Ghanta Ghar
· Aligarh Fort, known as Aligarh Quila
· Achal Taal, Historical Pond
· Dharnidhar Sarovar, Beswan, Tapobhumi of Vishwamitra
· Jama Masjid (Mosque) (Const 1727)
Connectivity and Transportation
Railways: Aligarh Junction railway station is the primary station for Aligarh city and is a major stop on the Delhi-Kolkata route. It is a A-Class railway station. It is one of the oldest railway station of this route. It connects Aligarh to the states of West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, north-east and most of Uttar Pradesh, and important cities such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bhopal, Indore, Jammu, Gwalior, Lucknow, Jhansi, Puri, Kanpur, Agra and Varanasi. Aligarh railway station handles over 136 trains daily (in both directions) and serves around 204,000 passengers every day. Aligarh has one Branch Railway Line to Bareily.
Road: Aligarh is 140 km from New Delhi. It is one of the Division of UPSRTC. Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC) buses serve cities all over the state and cities in Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Haryana.
Aligarh City has two UPSRTC bus stations:
· Aligarh Depot bus station (It is under renovation).
· Masoodabad (Budh Vihar) Depot bus station
· ISBT Rasualabad Sarsaul under construction.
Following Highways are connected to Aligarh:
· National Highway 91- It connects Kolkata to National Capital New Delhi. Ghaziabad-Aligarh section is 4 Lane Highway.
· National Highway 93- It connects Moradabad to Taj Nagri Agra via Aligarh. Aligarh-Agra section is constructed as Brijbhoomi Expressway.
· Yamuna Expressway- It is 6 Lane Expressway Noida-Agra crossing at Tappal in Khair Tehsil from where Khair City is 30 km.
Air: The nearest international airport from Aligarh is Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi. It is 140 km from Aligarh.
Aligarh Airport is in under construction, it is in Dhanipur on NH 91. Dhanipur Air Strip is used as Flying Club. The Government of Uttar Pradesh signed a MoU with the Airports Authority of India (AAI) in February 2014 for the development of the airport.
Aligarh as Smart City
After being selected as one of the hundred potential Smart Cities, the city of Aligarh submitted its first proposal to the government of India in December 2015. Similarly, for second stage the Smart City proposal was submitted in June 2016. However due to various deficiencies in the proposals submitted Aligarh could not make into the list of declared Smart Cities by the government of India. The recent most (Stage-II) proposal is being uploaded here for reference.
Citizens of Aligarh are being humbly requested to go through the various contours of the development plans under Smart City proposal (Stage-II). The proposal broadly consists of retrofitting of Achal Sarovar and surrounding areas as well as various pan city initiatives. These initiatives cover miscellaneous IT solutions, Integrated Traffic Management System (ITMS) and solid waste management.
The interested citizens are expected to give suggestions regarding the improvement of work-ability of the proposal. Improving work-ability includes the various agreement, MoUs and other processes which enable us to be better placed in terms of readiness for the implementation at the field level as soon as the government shows the green signal.
Map of Aligarh
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